Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب‎‎

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Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب‎‎; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam) and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah. He is an important figure in Islam as he was a member of the Bayṫ (Arabic: بَـيـت‎, Household) of Muhammad and the Ahl al-Kisā' (Arabic: أَهـل الـكِـسَـاء‎, People of the Cloak), as well as the third Shia Imam.

Prior to his death, the Umayyad ruler Muawiya appointed his son Yazid as his successor in a clear violation of the Hasan-Muawiya treaty.[8] When Muawiya died in 680 CE, Yazid demanded that Husain pledge allegiance to him. Husain was well-known as the grandson of Muhammad and was an exemplary Muslim; if Husain pledged allegiance to Yazid, who was corrupt, shameless, and tyrannical,[9] it would be seen as legitimizing Yazid's behavior in Islam. Thus, in order to save Islam from Yazid's influence, Husain refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid, even though it meant sacrificing his life. As a consequence, he left Medina, his hometown, to take refuge in Mecca in AH 60.[8][10] There, the people of Kufah sent letters to him, asking his help and pledging their allegiance to him. So he traveled towards Kufah;[8] however, at a place near it known as Karbala, his caravan was intercepted by Yazid's army. He was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 (the 10th of Muharram in 61 AH) by Shimr ibn Thil-Jawshan, along with most of his family and companions, including Husayn's six month old son, Ali al-Asghar, with the women and children taken as prisoners.[8][11] Anger at Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad caliphate's legitimacy, and ultimately overthrow it by the Abbasid Revolution.[12][13]

Husayn is highly regarded by Shia Muslims for refusing to pledge allegiance to Yazid,[14] the Umayyad caliph, because he considered the rule of the Umayyads unjust.[14] The annual memorial for him and his children, family and his companions is the first month in the Islamic calendar, that is Muharram, and the day he was martyred is the Ashura (tenth day of Muharram, a day of mourning for Shi'i Muslims). His action at Karbala fueled the later Shia movements.[13] The martyrdom of Husayn was decisive in shaping Islamic and Shia history. The timing of the Imam's life and martyrdom were crucial as they were in one of the most challenging periods of the 7th century. During this time, Umayyad oppression was rampant, and the stand the Imam and his followers took became a symbol of resistance inspiring future uprisings against oppressors.
Imam of Muslims
Imam Husayn Shrine by Tasnimnews
Shrine of Imam Husayn ibn Ali.
Native name الحسين ابن علي
Born 10 October 625
(3 Sha'aban AH 4)[1]
Medinah, Hijaz
Died 10 October 680 (aged 55)
(10 Muharram AH 61)
Karbala, Umayyad section of Mesopotamia
Cause of death Beheaded at the Battle of Karbala
Resting place His shrine at Karbala, Karbala Governorate, Iraq
32°36′59″N 44°1′56.29″E
Residence Medinah, Hejaz
Known for being a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Battle of Karbala, Shia Imam
Term AC 670–680
Predecessor (As Shia Imam) Hasan ibn Ali
Successor (As Shia Imam) Ali Zayn al-Abidin
Opponent(s) Yazid ibn Muawiyah
Spouse(s) Shahr Banu bint Yazdegerd III (last Sassanid Emperor of Persia)
Umme Rubāb
Umme Laylā

Ali (father)
Fatimah (mother)


Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali

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Imam Hussain and Waqia Karbala Full History 1.0

Updated: 2018-09-11 (1 year ago)

1.0 (1) 2019-09-03